Difference Between Endotoxins and Exotoxins

Difference Between Endotoxins and Exotoxins

Here, Let’s understand the Key Difference Between Endotoxins and Exotoxins. Endotoxins are biological toxins associated with the outer cell wall membrane of gram-negative bacteria such as E.coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Pseudomonas, vibrio cholera, etc. (Endotoxins are invariably associated with gram-negative bacteria whether the organisms are pathogenic or not). Endotoxins cause big reactions in our bodies, like … Read more

List of Drugs Schedule C, C1, G, H, H1, K, P, M, N and X with CAUTION and WARNING

Drugs Schedule C, C1, G, H, H1, K, P, M, N and X

There is a provision of guidelines for storage, sales, precriptions and classififcation of each drugs Under the differernt schedules of Drugs and Cosmetic rules 1945. Below is the List of Drugs under Schedule C, C1, G, H, H1, K, P, M, N and X with CAUTION and WARNING. Drugs SCHEDULE ‘C’ SCHEDULE ‘C(1)’ Drugs SCHEDULE … Read more

Pharmaceutical Aids | Classification, Role, Characteristics, Importance and Benifits

Pharmaceutical Aids Definition: The elements having little or no therapeutic value, but are basically used in the production or compounding of various pharmaceutical dosage forms are known as pharmaceutical aids. In this article, we will explore the definition, types, importance, benefits, challenges, safety considerations, and regulations. Role of Pharmaceutical Aids Pharmaceutical aids play a critical … Read more

Organoleptic Agents (Coloring, Flavoring and Sweetening agents)

Pharmaceutical Organoleptic agents

The term “organoleptic” refers to the ability to perceive and evaluate sensory properties through our sensory organs, such as taste, smell, texture, and color. In Pharmaceutical drug manufacturing, organoleptic agents are added to pharmaceutical formulations to enhance their sensory qualities to improve patient acceptability. In other words, Organoleptic agents in pharmaceutical aids are the components … Read more

Pharmaceutical incompatibility – Types, Machanism, Intraction with Examples

Pharmaceutical incompatibility

Pharmaceutical incompatibility is defined as any unwanted interaction of two or more drugs that results in a significant change either in the physical, chemical, or therapeutic behavior of drugs. The change can also result in an undesirable product which might affect the safety, efficacy, appearance, and stability of the product. Incompatibility can occur during compounding, … Read more

Pharmaceutical Suspension- Classification, Composition, Theory, Formulation, Evaluation, Advantages and Disadvantages

Pharmacy Suspension

Learn About Pharmaceutical Suspension- Classification, Composition, Theory, Formulation/Preparation, Evaluation, Types, Advantages, and Disadvantages. Definition: Pharmaceutical Suspension is a biphasic system that consists of solids finely dispersed into a liquid medium. It is a coarse dispersion in which the active ingredient as the internal phase is dispersed uniformly throughout the external phase with the help of … Read more

Extraction: Types and Different methods in Pharmaceutics

Extraction equipment

Definition: “Extraction involves using a liquid solvent to remove active constituents from a solid or liquid substance. Or The separation of medicinally active portions of plant or animal tissues from the inactive or inert components by using selective solvents.” The extraction process has the following stages: Some important terms Menstruum– The solvent used for extraction … Read more

Role of Drying in Pharmaceuticals

Drying is a process that involves the removal of water or other solvents through evaporation from solid, semi-solid, or liquid substances by applying heat to get dry solid mass or powders. Below is a detailed discussion on Drying, its application, Objective, mechanism, Theory, Rate of drying curve, formula, and equipment used. Objectives of Drying In … Read more

Transdermal Patches: Working, advantages, applications, and types

Transdermal patches are used on the skin to deliver medicines directly into the bloodstream. In this article, read about transdermal patches, their working mechanism, advantages, applications, types, application methods, and safety considerations. What are Transdermal Patches? They are thin, adhesive patches that are applied directly on the skin to deliver medication. Transdermal patches are useful … Read more

Freeze Dryer: Principle, Construction, and Working

Freeze Dryer Diagram

Freeze drying also known as lyophilization, involves freezing water and removing it from a sample through sublimation. It is widely used in the pharmaceutical and biological industries to preserve thermolabile substances. In this article, Read the Principles, Construction, Working of Freeze Dryers, Advantages and Disadvantages. Principle of Freeze Dryer: Freeze drying is also known as … Read more

Vacuum Dryer: Principle, Construction, Working, Advantages, Disadvantages, and Usage

Vacuum Dryer

A vacuum dryer is an effective equipment used in many industries, for example, pharmaceuticals, food processing, plastics, and textiles. Inside this equipment, vacuum is used to dry materials that are heated at low temperatures to easily evaporate. In this article learn about Vacuum Dryer and their Principle, Construction, Working, Advantages, Disadvantages, and Usage Principle of … Read more

Spray Dryer: Principle, Construction, Working, Advantages, and Disadvantages

A spray dryer is an instrument used to dry a liquid feed, for example; solution, suspension, or paste, into dried particles by spraying the feed into a hot drying medium. In this article learn about their Principle, Construction, Working, Advantages, and Disadvantages. Principle of Spray Dryer: The principle of spray drying involves transforming a liquid … Read more

Drum Dryer | Roll Dryer: Principle, Construction, Working, and Application

Drum dryer and roll dryer is widely used in industries because of their heat-drying property. In this article learn about principle, constructions, and workings, along with their advantages, disadvantages, and pharmaceutical applications. Principle of Drum Dryer: In the drum dryer principle, we use a heated hollow metal drum that rotates on its longitudinal axis. The … Read more

Mixing – Pharmaceutical Engineering a Complete Guidance

In this section, we will explore the objectives, applications, and different factors which affect the mixing process, as well as the mechanisms involved in solid, liquid, and semisolid mixing. We will also discuss the principles, construction, working, uses, merits, and demerits of various mixers commonly used in different industries. Definition Definition: Mixing (or blending) is … Read more

Triple Roller Mill: Principle, Construction, Diagram, Working, and Applications

The Triple Roller Mill is a highly valuable equipment used in different industries for mixing purposes. It is known as Triple Roller Mill. Principle: Principle of the Triple Roller Mill Operating on the principle of shear force, the three-roll mill contains three horizontally positioned rolls. These rolls rotate in opposite directions and at varying speeds … Read more