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Limit Test for Sulphate

The Limit Test for Sulphate is designed to determine the allowable limit of Sulphate contained in a sample.

Principle

Limit Test for Sulphate test comparison

The principle for the limit test of Sulphate is based on the reaction of soluble Sulphate with barium chloride in presence of dilute hydrochloric acid to form barium Sulphate which appears as turbidity with a white precipitate.

Then a comparison of turbidity is done with standard turbidity obtained from a known amount of Sulphate and the same volume of dilute hydrochloride acid have been added to both solution.

The barium chloride test solution in the IP has been replaced by barium Sulphate regent which is having barium chloride, Sulphate-free alcohol, and a solution of potassium Sulphate. K2SO4 has been added to the solution to increasing the sensitivity of the test.


Limit test in Pharmaceuticals; Limit test for Iron; Chloride;


Apparatus Required:

  • Nessler cylinders
  • Glass rod
  • Stand

Chemical Required:

Barium sulphate reagent: its Preparation-0.05 M barium chloride solution is prepared by dissolving 12 g of barium chloride in 1000ml of water, to the 55 ml of water, 20ml of alcohol and 5 ml of 0.0181% w/v solution of potassium sulphate and the final volume was made upto 100 ml.

Reaction

Limit Test for Sulphate reaction
  • Hydrochloric acid help to make the solution acidic.
  • K2SO4 has been added to the solution to increasing the sensitivity of the test by releasing ionic concentration in the reagent.
  • Alcohol helps to prevent supersaturation.

Procedure for Limit Test for Sulphate:

Test Sample Standard Compounds
The specific weight of the compound is mixed in H2O or the
solution is prepared as described in the pharmacopoeia and transferred in the Nessler cylinder
Take 1 ml of 0.1089 % w/v solution of potassium Sulphate in the Nessler cylinder
Add dilute HCL of about 2 mlAdd dilute HCL of about 2 ml
Dilute to 45 ml in the Nessler cylinderDilute to 45 ml in the Nessler cylinder
Add 5 ml of barium sulfate reagentAdd 5 ml of barium sulfate reagent
Keep it stagnant for 5 minutes and observed the turbidityKeep it stagnant for 5 minutes and observed the turbidity

Barium Sulphate reagent contains barium chloride, Sulphate-free alcohol, and a small amount of potassium sulfate.

Observation:

The turbidity or white precipitate produced in the tested sample solution should not be more than the standard solution. if turbidity produced in the sample solution is less than the standard solution, the sample will pass the limit test of Sulphate.

Reasons:

Hydrochloric acid helps to make the solution acidic. potassium Sulphate is used to increase the sensitivity of the test by giving ionic concentration in the reagent.

Alcohol helps to prevent supersaturation and so produces a more uniform opalescence.

Referernce:

The Indian Pharmacopeia

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